Clinical Ethics for Urologists (2020): Module 8: Pediatric Patients

This module describes the relationship between age and the acquisition and manifestation of decisional capacity, defines assent and dissent, and distinguishes the difference between these concepts (assent and dissent) from consent and refusal. This module also defines and distinguishes the difference between "mature minors," "emancipated minors," and "statutory minors" and explains the significance of these terms for decision making in the care of adolescent patients. The concept of "best interests" in the context of decision making for pediatric and adolescent patients will also be covered along with the differentiating roles of children/adolescents, parents/surrogates, and physicians in health care decision making. Finally this module will identify contentious or controversial issues in health care decision making by and on behalf of pediatric and adolescent patients.

Target Audience

  • Residents
  • Practicing Urologists
  • Advanced Practice Providers

Learning Objectives

After completing this activity, participants will be able to:

  1. Explain the relationship between age and decisional capacity.
  2. Apply the concept of “best interest” during decision making for pediatric/adolescent patients
  3. Describe the varying roles of the patient, surrogate and physician during health care decision making.
  4. Distinguish the differences between mature, emancipated and statutory minors and define how these terms affect decision making in the care of adolescent patients.
Course summary
Available credit: 
  • 0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™
  • 0.50 Non-Physician Participation
Course opens: 
Course expires: 


Learners will participate in this online educational activity by taking the pretest, viewing the online modules and completing the posttest and evaluation. To claim CME credit for this enduring material, learners must complete the post-test, passing with 80% accuracy and submit the program evaluation.

Estimated time to complete this activity: 0.50 hours

Original Release Date: January, 2008
Expiration Date: March, 2023

Peer Review:
This activity was peer reviewed in January, 2011
This activity was peer reviewed in January, 2014
This activity was peer reviewed in March, 2020


The American Urological Association (AUA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.


The American Urological Association designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.


The AUA is not accredited to offer credit to participants who are not MDs or DOs. However, the AUA will issue documentation of participation that states that the activity was certified for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™.


It is the policy of the AUA to ensure that the content contained in this CME activity is valid, fair, balanced, scientifically rigorous, and free of commercial bias.


All persons in a position to control the content of an educational activity (i.e., activity planners, presenters, authors) are required to disclose to the provider any relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. The AUA must determine if the individual’s relationships may influence the educational content and resolve any conflicts of interest prior to the commencement of the educational activity. The intent of this disclosure is not to prevent individuals with relevant financial relationships from participating, but rather to provide learners information with which they can make their own judgments.


All disclosures will be reviewed by the program/course directors or editors for identification of conflicts of interest. Peer reviewers, working with the program directors and/or editors, will document the mechanism(s) for management and resolution of the conflict of interest and final approval of the activity will be documented prior to implementation. Any of the mechanisms below can/will be used to resolve conflict of interest:

  • Peer review for valid, evidence-based content of all materials associated with an educational activity by the course/program director, editor, and/or Education Content Review Committee or its subgroup.
  • Limit content to evidence with no recommendations
  • Introduction of a debate format with an unbiased moderator (point-counterpoint)
  • Inclusion of moderated panel discussion
  • Publication of a parallel or rebuttal article for an article that is felt to be biased
  • Limit equipment representatives to providing logistics and operation support only in procedural demonstrations
  • Divestiture of the relationship by faculty


The audience is advised that this continuing medical education activity may contain reference(s) to off-label or unapproved uses of drugs or devices. Please consult the prescribing information for full disclosure of approved uses.

Available Credit

  • 0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™
  • 0.50 Non-Physician Participation
Please login or register to take this course.