Examining Changes in the Urinary Microbiome Induced by Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of the Prostate Using 16sRNA Analysis
There is accumulating evidence that variations in the urinary tract microbiome are associated with developing urinary tract infections (UTI). In this study we exam the changes in the microbiome of fecal and urinary tract after prostate biopsy.
Total DNA was extracted from urine collected after prostate massage before and after prostate biopsy, and from fecal samples collected before the biopsy. DNA was amplified and sequenced using the bacterial 16S rRNA high-throughput next generation sequencing platform. Changes in microbial profiles were analyzed for taxonomy comparison between biological samples.
40 patient's specimens were collected (120 biological samples, 2 urine and 1 fecal samples per patient), 30 patients were in the final analysis. Pre-biopsy urinary microbial profiles contained lactobacillales and staphylococcaceae bacteria. Post biopsy urinary microbial profiles contained lower levels of lactobacillales and higher levels of bacteroidales bacteria. Bacteroidales bacteria was the predominant in fecal samples. Two clustering patterns containing both pre and post-biopsy urine samples were identified. Cluster 1 had a urine pattern that was distinct from fecal, while cluster 2 was similar to fecal. Three different patterns of microbe changes were observed, 11 patients had both of their urine (pre and post) samples associated with a particular cluster group, while others (n=15) had movement between clusters 1 and 2 following the biopsy procedure. Four patients post urine microbiome profile clustered very closely to the fecal microbiome.
This study point toward the process of inoculation of bacteria during prostate biopsy using microbiome profiling, due to translocation of fecal bacteria in to the prostate changing the urinary microbiome of some patients.